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Hartz Stone Blog http://hartzstone.com/blog/index.php
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The Formation Of Rust In Stone, Iron In Minerals and Stone Restoration
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The exact calculation of the volume expansion from metallic iron to rust is very difficult because most freshly formed rust is a heterogeneous mixture of amorphous and crystalline FeOOH with different degrees of hydration. The theoretical calculations of the volume expansion of the important weatherable iron minerals are approximations and guideline. You can call on a professional stone restoration company or supplier for some good advice on how to find, remove, and replace hidden clamps, cramps, and pins with a magnetometer, if they are damaged by rust, and how to expose them by core drilling for repair, installation of weep holes, creating space for expansion by rust formation, and treatment of still intact iron enclosures with rust proofing materials.

One company that comes to mind for stone repair and restoration is BonStone Materials Corporation. They have a full line of restoration products for epoxy packaging solutions, patching, stone repair compounds, stone bonding applications, and even a stone Repair Kit. So does Eastern Marble and Granite Supply in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. Call either company for advice and supplies.

This is a good time to think about caring for stone representing our historical heritage. Many buildings, cemeteries, and other structures made of stone are in need for restoration. And indeed restoration is often better than replacement or building new. Thank you for reading the publication and your commitment to the stone industry. Call me if I can answer specific questions or if I can help you in any way.]]>

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Winter And Frost Action On Stone And The Evaluation Of The Soundness Of Stone
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The frost action on stone in those moderate humid climates has long been known as a disruptive factor which deserves our attention. The action of frost results from a combination of factors, such as volumetric expansion from the water to the ice phase, the degree of water saturation of the pores, the critical pore size distribution, and the continuity of the pore system.

The danger to stone by frost action depends on the pores size distribution, the relative humidity (RH), the water saturation, and the possible presence of salts, especially Na2SO4. Ice increases its hardness with decreasing temperature from MH = 1.5 (Mohs Hardness) at 0 degree C to MH = 6 at -60 degree C, which is the hardness of granite. The volume increase of water from 4 degree C, the densest point, upward and down toward freezing appears to have some influence in confined capillaries.

Specimens of stone soaked continuously before freezing are more susceptible to decay than specimens which are soaked and subsequently dried at 75 degrees C and 50% RH. The sensitivity of quarry-moist stone blocks is therefore not surprising. The curing of such blocks has been practiced since Roman times. It was well known to the architect, Christopher Wren, who cured blocks of Portland stone on the beaches of England before use.

The following is a partial list of observations of Physical damage during winter exposure or after cold exposure of stone to the elements of weather, usually cold;

1) Cracks, in sandstones, marbles, and granites, caused by stress relief and uneven loading of a building.

2) Scaling and Flaking, in all rock types, by hygric action, frost or salts.

3) Surface crumbling, in sandstones, some granites, and marbles. Detection of traces of efflorescent salts.

4) Porosity, changes due to weathering, transport of grain cement, effectiveness of consolidants or sealer.

5) Ultrasound testing for quality of stone; data of weathered stone should be compared with quarryfresh material, dry and water soaked; ultrasound tests may replace unsightly test drilling in many instances.

6) Moisture testing: approximate moisture content in masonry and stone can be tested with several types of instruments in the field. The method is limited; more precision is required to determine minor quantities absorbed from high relative humidity.

With the experience of most stone restorers, conservators, and preservationists; especially in these economic times, it is often more attractive to restore rather than replace. Our experience is that if the stone only had more care and maintenance or proper restoration, these great stones can be cared for properly and preserved. Since our company serves the New York Metro area, we especially see many old stone buildings with stone that is in advanced degenerative phases, inside and outside of the buildings. Working mechanically with these stones can often cure the problems, refine the finish, and preserve the stones.

All of the cities in this country has as its' lifeblood, its landmarks - its historic neighborhoods, its incomparable buildings, its distinctive streets. They hold the history of this nation built on democracy and capitalism. Histories so important to embrace, protect, and learn from. Like our Constitution, this is something to preserve. Like stone, a reminder of what was, what is, and what can be preserved and not destroyed. It is times like these that we restore. Given the chance, "yes, we can." The old does have an enduring significance. Until next time, "hold onto your stones" - build or maintain and restore, and do not destroy what is good.]]>

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Sustainable Design, Stone, Tile, Restoration and Maintenance
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One of the major drivers for Green Building Growth; MOVEMENT BACK TO THE CITIES. Just when I was thinking that I would not be spending so much time in the city, I have found that actual demand for services such as ours (for stone care) have increased in the cities. Use of the safe cleaners and sealers is important. In most cases, we use a safe abrasive means to clean most stone surfaces with water and without any chemical cleaners. A common misconception is that the stone restoration or professional stone cleaning company uses cleaners or magic stain release to get rid of inundated soil and stains on stone and tile surfaces. This is not true. In fact, most times, we can restore stone without the use of heavy chemicals. It is with skill and hard labor; that these materials are restored or cleaned. Stone care and stone restoration is requires trained professionals.

What available tools and techniques from conventional marketing can we use to greater effect in marketing green design services?

Sustainable design and sustainable care must be used because it adds value to investments in materials used. Sustainable care for stone and tile, a major material used in the built environment, has to do with methods and materials use also. The users of all indoor and outdoor man-made environments must know what materials to use for cleaning and restoration and how to use. A professional stone and tile care company will direct these needs and then the manager or owner of such materials can be educated as to how to care for themselves. If these surfaces are clean, so is the circulating air condition inside.

With floors one should be aware that with today’s design they are often in need of professional care. A common mistake is that after the installation is complete, the contractor, developer, or architect, and others involved with the final stage of the new installation; do not take the steps to have a post-installation clean, condition, and seal application services ordered. All too often, we hear,” the stone does not look right and it is difficult to care for." Some even think they made a mistake to install such a material and then blame themselves, the architect/designer, or supplier of the stone and tile. Often if they were told how to care for it in the beginning and ordered the appropriate after installation care by a professional who knows what to do, then they would not be in this position. And in turn, the building would be, yes; more sustainable.

So, keep your stones in the water from time to time. They love the rain! Without the acid. Until next time, keep the faith, hope, and health in abundance. If we work together, we can do better. If we do what is right, we will do better. We are all connected with nature. And nature prevails. For love of stone. This is Ed Hartz and the Stone Industry News wishing you blessed holiday times with your lives and your families. Thank you.]]>

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A Diamond In The Rough: Irish Limestone
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Why? because this stone is naturally beautiful, will fit into modern or contemporary design today, feels great on the human skin (Ask the Barefoot Contessa), and maintains and restores very well.

Irish Limestone is a natural material of unique beauty, inherent durability and versatility. It is unlike softer limestone and has a similar density to quality granites. It can b used for flooring, countertops, fireplace mantles and surrounds, as well as in architectural applications in lintels, cladding, monuments, landscape paving stones and outdoor sculptures. Irish Limestone is extremely hard and durable, having been formed more than 325 million years ago as the floor of a coastal sea. The deep water transformed sediments into tough, fine-grained grey-blue limestone with calcite veins and crystalline fossils. The colors are identified as Irish Blue, Grey, and Fossil Limestone, since they range from black to blue to grey and often display well-defined fossils of sea shells, corals and prehistoric sea plants. The fossils and the inclusions of calcite introduce dramatic white or grey markings into the darker matrix of the stone.

HartzStone and some other stone restorations companies have tested this stone on samples and on the job sites. We found that this stone is not difficult to clean or restore. Unlike some of the more porous limestone, Irish Limestone is a dense form of dolomitic material that resists staining. Any etching caused by exposure to acidic liquids is superficial and may be cleaned easily or "buffed out." It is relatively easy to re-condition, restore, and maintain this stone. In fact, as the stone ages or cures, a patina develops to reduce the appearance of many etch spots normally encountered by using limestone.

You can choose to keep the weathered and patina look or have it cleaned and conditioned and sealed more regularly, thus giving it a different look. Testing with various sealers such as Dry Treat, AquaMix, Fila, Miracle, StoneTech, Bellenzoni, Tenax, and other major brand sealers have shown to varying degrees an effective treatment to slow the aging process without altering the stone's beautiful appearance. As Mom would say, stunning. Consumer Reports writes that limestone in general offers the best "stone look without heavy veining." Combined with its neutral color palette, warm honed finish and numerous fossil inclusions, this natural character has long been a popular choice for flooring and countertops in Europe. A fine stone care company in your area can understand and service this stone well for you. All you have to do is explain your situation/lifestyle and discuss the finish and maintenance level you desire. The stone is a joy to work with. So call your architect, your stone source, and your area stone care company. They can help you decide and take care of the stone.

For more information regarding this stone or supply and fabrication details, please contact the source at Irish Natural Stone, Inc., 21 Drydock Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts.

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Hard Rock Cafe Stone
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This porphyritic rock currently used by the building construction industry for floorings, traditional and ventilated-wall facings, is a type of effusive volcanic rock - rhyolitic and rhyodacitic ignimbrites - that is commonly found in the earth's mantle. Some of the thicker and more renowned formations of closely fractured ignimbrites are to be found in Italy, Argentina, and Mexico. Less thick, fractured formations are found in Australia, Japan, and Greece.
Non-fractured ignimbrites, i.e. without slab formation, also exist in Italy, Argentina, Germany, Peru, Poland, Turkey, Spain, Iran, China, and Mexico. Petrographically speaking, porphyry consists of a microcrystalline to vitreous groundmass, which makes up over 65% of its volume, containing up to 30-35% of small crystals (sizes 2-4 mm). The most abundant crystals consist of quartz, which explains why this rock is also known by the name of "quartz porphyry." Porphyry also contains a small percentage of feldspar and traces of mica minerals.

Porphyry's technical characteristics make it one of the most important materials for paving and facing in europe, America and around the world. Porphyry is stronger than granite with more than 31,000 psi. The increase in the concern for safety and durability has led to the adoption of protective surfaces, which are slip resistant, prevent slipping, impermeable, easy to repair, have minimal installation and maintenance cost, offer an economic solution because of its durability; and yes, porphyry resists staining on floors and walls from your coffee or drink at the Hard Rock Cafe or Starbucks coffee shop. You can live with and enjoy the stone for a long-long time. The services to maintain are minimum. Use a good stone neutral cleaner from Fila, Aquamix, StoneTech, Miracle Sealants or other major professional stone care company. And for stronger cleaning or maintenance jobs use a product from Proseco.

I love this stone and so will you. Call Porphyry USA or Milestone Imports for supply or other information related to this stone. Both are in the USA with supplies in New Jersey, Florida, California, and New Mexico.



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Residential Limestone: Part of the Earth Machine
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Originaly published in Stone Industry News

We love stone. We love Limestone. From Indiana to Germany; limestone comes to the built environment. There are many opportunities in residential and commercial restoration of stone if you are willing and able to take a grind to the stone, and get into the heart of stone. This article is dedicated to our memories of our colleagues Michael Wiston of Valley Marble and Maurizio Bertoli of MB Stone Restoration both of whom I had the honor to know. So have many of you. There are mechanisms of stone decay upon limestone and calcareous stones by oxides of nitrogen and sulfur. These are chemical mechanisms. There is also moisture, and the most common sources of moisture that cause damage to stone. In this case we picture a limestone facade and small sample area of an architectural element affected by moisture. This particular house is in East Hampton, New York where salt air and moisture problems can be mitigated with maintenance, repair, and restoration. Cleaning, restoration, and maintenance can help avoid such conditions on limestone buildings as cracks, spalling or staining, or scaling. Limestone close to H=3 when well lithified (uniformly cemented) can be deceivingly soft. And then you have the Empire State Building and the others "Hard as a Rock" as they say. Structural cracks, gaps at joints between components and large openings are the evident problems in many cases as this one is pictured here. An investigation of load bearing elements such as columns, and beams, will establish whether those components are performing as they were originally designed, or the stress patterns have been redistributed. A common method of restoration and maintenance on stone in such conditions is filling cavities, cracks, and smoothing or refinishing stone surfaces; otherwise known as grinding, honing, and polishing. We all have listened to the expression "Marble Polishing" and so there is "Limestone Polishing" Smoothing the surface and opening and then closing the pores is a key to proper maintenance.

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M.I.A. Quarry Tour
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Ed Hartz joined other members of the Marble Institute of America (MIA) on a tour of several marble quarries in New England. Geologic forces push calcium carbonate deposits such as limestone deep below the surface of the Earth, where heat and pressure form Marble crystals. A similar geological process forms granite from silica deposits. Later geologic forces lifted the marble and granite to the surface where it is economical to quarry the stone for architectural and artistic uses. The conditions that form each marble deposit are slightly different: the ratio of calcium carbonate to magnesium carbonate varies, the presence and amounts of other minerals varies, the pressure and temperature to form marble crystals varies, and the sequence of events that cause inclusions and veining varies. The conditions that form each granite deposit also vary; the duration of temperature and pressure as the silica deposits rise and cool determine how large the quartz crystals will become. The percentage of other minerals such as feldspar and aluminum and the fractures that allow inclusions create the patterns that make granite such an interesting material. The MIA members visited the quarries to see first hand the subtle differences throughout each quarry and the differences between the quarries.

The tour set out in a gray rain in Barre, VT, for the Rock of Ages Visitors Center in Graniteville, where company Vice President Bob Campo showed Ed the monument and mausoleum manufacturing process up close. Rough granite slabs of the desired color and pattern are cut to the required shape, polished, engraved and sand blasted to produce the individual monuments. Following the tour of the manufacturing facility, Ed visited the E. L. Smith Quarry, also owned by Rock of Ages. Granite has been quarried here since 1880. One familiar monument constructed with this granite is the World War II Memorial that opened in 2003. Ed saw diverse granite monuments at the Hope Cemetery in Barre.

A visit to the Vermont Granite Museum of Barre supplied more history and details about the quarrying and manufacturing of architectural granite. At the next stop, Granite Importers owner, Jake Colgan, accompanied Ed an the rest of the MIA group as they walked through the fabrication facility, which was in the process of working on giving a polished finish to curved pieces of Cambrian Black granite for the Mandarin hotel in Boston. Black shows every flaw and curved surfaces are difficult to polish so Ed was very interested to see the techniques that produce the highest quality finish.

The marble part of the tour included the Danby marble quarry, operated by Vermont Quarries Corp. of Rutland, VT. Luca Mannolini, General Manager, led a tour of their facility and the Imperial quarry, in Dorset Mountain, which is the largest underground marble quarry in the U.S. Danby marble was used to construct the U. S. Supreme Court Building, Jefferson Monument and several other prominent buildings, but 90% of the marble has been used for kitchen countertops. Ed examined the facility that produces 30,000 square feet of marble per month, and took photographs of the giant blocks before they are cut into slabs.

Ed and the MIA tour visited the Marble Museum in Proctor, VT, a unique resource of the extent and variety of marble from throughout the world. Philip Gawet of Gawet Marble and Granite recounted the history of the marble industry in Vermont, which is illustrated in the photographs in the museum. The museum is housed in a former factory and warehouse and includes the adjacent abandoned quarry. The worked face of the upper portion of the quarry is dramatically reflected in the rainwater that has collected in the pit. Another highlight of Proctor is a recently restored marble bridge that you will cross on the way to the museum.

The final stop on the tour was the Bethel White quarry, owned by Rock of Ages. Bob Campo explained that the stone quarried there is some of the whitest granite in the world, and a premium quality material. One characteristic of this stone is that it can be cut in either direction and still look the same.

The tour provided the depth and detail of information about New England marble and granite that is only possible with direct face-to-face discussions. Ed and the rest of the MIA group are extremely grateful to their hosts for sharing their knowledge and expertise.

The entrance to the marble mine
At the top of an open pit marble quarry
Descending the marble quarry—notice the tiny people
The working level of the marble quarry
Ed Hartz at the working level of the marble quarry
Approaching the Marble Museum]]>

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Preservation
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One of the strong selling points of natural stone is longevity. Natural stones endure through years of use, even centuries of harsh weather. Natural stone has been the obvious choice for monuments and prominent public buildings. Natural stone is a complement to landmark buildings; great design deserves to be preserved in durable stone.

What do we do with our monuments and significant architecture after a hundred years or even just a few years of use, when the original bright finish is dull and various stains have accumulated? We could sacrifice the history and artistry of the original by replacing it with something new, or we could celebrate its endurance by restoring the original appearance of the natural stone.

Restored natural stone encourages the use of more stone in new places. The restored marble floor in the foyer of a pre-war home, reassures the new homeowner that remodeling the master bathroom with marble will be an investment, not just a beautiful way to spend money. Restoring a significant public building or monument reminds consumers that natural stone repays the additional cost.

Natural stone has been promoting green building practices since the first caveman built the second stone wall with materials from the first stone wall. Natural stone is, well, natural. It is recyclable, reusable and renewable. In many places, restoring and reusing natural stone building materials will generate credits that will get the building permit approved or even allow a larger addition.

Restoration supports preservation. Preservation sells the unmatched durability of natural stone. Preservation maintains our connections with history. Preservation conserves our finite earth resources. Everyone benefits.
Ed Hartz
HartzStone, LLC
hartzstone@earthlink.net

Tel: 203.426.0885
www.hartzstone.com]]>

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The Bookshelf
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Ed Hartz continually reads books, magazines and Internet articles to keep current with topics in the stone industry. We have included references to a few of the best on a variety of topics: some that will interest the general reader and some that will interest the professional.


Stonexus

The photography and the quality of the printing are reason enough to read this publication of The Stone Foundation. The magazine specializes in presenting excellent photographs of ancient and enduring stone structures, some in ruins and some maintained for continual use. Of course, the accompanying stories are written from the point of view of stone industry professionals, and there are intelligent discussions of the type of stone and the methods of construction. The photographs and articles will take the reader around the world from Europe to Asia, Africa and the Americas.

In addition to artistic and literary content, the professional will find interesting descriptions of techniques used by leading professionals in different aspects of the stone industry. Professionals describe recent projects and include discussions of the key decisions they made.

The Stone Foundation publishes Stonexus, www.stonefoundation.org.

Stone Industry News

This tabloid-sized newspaper is essential for keeping track of the people and businesses in the stone industry. Stone Industry News prints the business announcements of the stone industry: job promotions, business acquisitions, new products and the like. It also prints interesting business discussions, including ethics, promotion and successful strategies. Even the non-professional will enjoy the articles on recently completed stone projects.

Stone Industry News is independent of any stone association or trade group. It is published monthly by Industry News, Inc, www.stoneindustrynews.com.

Slippery Rock Gazette

The Slippery Rock Gazette is a tabloid like the magazine in the Sunday newspaper. In addition to industry announcements, a variety of industry professionals contribute regular columns on topics ranging from business strategies, and “how-to” instruction to random topics on life in general. The advertising includes most major manufacturers operating in the US.

Find Slippery Rock Gazette at www. Slipperyrockgazette.net.

Stone Architecture

Written by Alfonso Acocella
Pub Date: December 2006
Format: Hardcover
Category: Architecture - Methods & Materials
US Price: $150.00
CAN Price: $200.00
ISBN: 978-88-7624-696-8 (88-7624-696-7)
Publisher: Skira
Trim Size: 9-1/2 x 13

About this Book

In this sweeping volume, Professor Acocella analyzes every type of stone, from those used by the Egyptians to the marble used by Mies van der Rohe. Stone as a material is not only analyzed from a historical point of view, it is categorized and examined according to its technological usage. The book is based on comparison and confrontation between origins, archetypes and present-day themes, examining a variety of projects from around the world. It provides an in-depth analysis of the enormous potential of building in stone. A combination of dense, carefully construed chapters are designed to summarize the essence of the material in its various architectonic roles through a series of specially created technical drawings, and a range of original drawings and photos.

About the Author

Alfonso Acocella is professor of technology of architecture at the University of Ferrara, Italy. His previous books include studies of contemporary architecture in Italy.


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Stone Maintenance Partnerships
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By Ed Hartz

The stone retailer and fabricator advertises, displays and promotes to generate a continual flow of new customers, then sells a product to each customer whom the retailer will rarely see again. Consider the garden center. They sell new annual plants to the same customers every year. Even when the customer buys a tree that will live for a century or more, the garden center sells fertilizer and pest control. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a continual relationship that generates a steady cash flow every year from existing customers?

HartzStone has partnered with a significant number of stone retailers and fabricators to provide the continuing maintenance that keeps the stone looking as good as the day it left the store. The retailer sells the service and HartzStone does the work.

While some customers shop only on price, other customers demand the highest quality materials and demand that they be kept in the finest condition. These customers have a reputation to establish and they use the impression that their homes give to support that reputation. The retailer knows who these customers are, and the add-on sale of continuing care meets the customer’s need.

The price conscious commodity shopper does not know that there are quality differences between one grade of 12-inch marble tiles and another grade. Successful retailers and fabricators have acquired an intimate knowledge of the characteristics of each type of stone they sell and the differences between French limestone, Indiana limestone and Irish limestone. The stone professional knows more than just the color and texture of each stone, the professional knows the characteristics that will suit the intended installation and those that will present future problems.

The professional maintenance and restoration craftsman also has an intimate knowledge of the characteristics of each stone, with the added knowledge of how well each stone has survived daily use in real homes. The professional maintenance craftsman also has an intimate knowledge of the tools, materials and techniques that produce the desired result with each specific stone in each specific environment. Although the cost conscious commodity customer would be satisfied with service from the local handyman, the high-end customer wants careful and expert craftsmanship. The retailer and fabricator already have full-time jobs, so the attractive alternative is to out-source the service responsibilities to a reliable maintenance and restoration professional. The successful retailer knows what the customer wants, so a brief conversation with local maintenance and restoration companies will reveal which can deliver the expertise that will keep the customer coming back.

So, go ahead and sell the tumbled marble to be installed in a shower, where soaps, lotions and every imaginable product of the cosmetics industry will assault it. Or sell the limestone counter for the kitchen, where cooking oils, fruit juices and a world of exotic ingredients will attack it. Just be sure to sell the post-installation cleaning and conditioning by a professional maintenance and restoration company so that the stone you sell will continue to look good while it is being used. Then sell the periodic maintenance contract so that the show room appearance is renewed every year. The customer will be happy with their stone for many years, and you will pocket a share of the maintenance revenue every year.


Ed Hartz founded HartzStone more than a decade ago to provide the highest quality stone restoration services to some of the most sophisticated and demanding residential customers in the country. HartzStone has built a reputation for professionalism upon extensive study of the characteristics of natural stone, thorough testing of restoration materials and techniques, and careful attention to the details of each restoration job. Visit HartzStone.com for more information about HartzStone and to see examples of completed restoration projects.

Granite paving outside the American Museum of Natural History, New York]]>