The Formation Of Rust In Stone, Iron In Minerals and Stone Restoration 
The mean iron content of the earth's crust is 5%. Iron becomes locked in ferromagnesian silicates in rock at the earth's surface mostly as green or black ferrous-ferric iron. There is significant damage to stone outdoors, especially after winters or subjection to other inclement weather patterns. There is damage to Stone by rust that must be fixed through restoration. Steel anchors and bolts inserted into stone or concrete have also caused damage by rust burst wherever there is access to the atmosphere. Similar rust bursts can be observed by the oxidation of pyrite, or indeed wherever rust can develop in the presence of oxygen and moisture.

The exact calculation of the volume expansion from metallic iron to rust is very difficult because most freshly formed rust is a heterogeneous mixture of amorphous and crystalline FeOOH with different degrees of hydration. The theoretical calculations of the volume expansion of the important weatherable iron minerals are approximations and guideline. You can call on a professional stone restoration company or supplier for some good advice on how to find, remove, and replace hidden clamps, cramps, and pins with a magnetometer, if they are damaged by rust, and how to expose them by core drilling for repair, installation of weep holes, creating space for expansion by rust formation, and treatment of still intact iron enclosures with rust proofing materials.

One company that comes to mind for stone repair and restoration is BonStone Materials Corporation. They have a full line of restoration products for epoxy packaging solutions, patching, stone repair compounds, stone bonding applications, and even a stone Repair Kit. So does Eastern Marble and Granite Supply in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. Call either company for advice and supplies.

This is a good time to think about caring for stone representing our historical heritage. Many buildings, cemeteries, and other structures made of stone are in need for restoration. And indeed restoration is often better than replacement or building new. Thank you for reading the publication and your commitment to the stone industry. Call me if I can answer specific questions or if I can help you in any way.

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Winter And Frost Action On Stone And The Evaluation Of The Soundness Of Stone 
The decay of rock and stone has been well known to conservators and architects of historical buildings and monuments since the days of the Roman Empire. We can understand most phases of physical and chemical weathering as a result of minerals and rocks attempting to reach equilibrium under conditions at the earth's surface. And today there is not much known of the time required for these processes to take place in the complex environment of the earth's surfaces.

The frost action on stone in those moderate humid climates has long been known as a disruptive factor which deserves our attention. The action of frost results from a combination of factors, such as volumetric expansion from the water to the ice phase, the degree of water saturation of the pores, the critical pore size distribution, and the continuity of the pore system.

The danger to stone by frost action depends on the pores size distribution, the relative humidity (RH), the water saturation, and the possible presence of salts, especially Na2SO4. Ice increases its hardness with decreasing temperature from MH = 1.5 (Mohs Hardness) at 0 degree C to MH = 6 at -60 degree C, which is the hardness of granite. The volume increase of water from 4 degree C, the densest point, upward and down toward freezing appears to have some influence in confined capillaries.

Specimens of stone soaked continuously before freezing are more susceptible to decay than specimens which are soaked and subsequently dried at 75 degrees C and 50% RH. The sensitivity of quarry-moist stone blocks is therefore not surprising. The curing of such blocks has been practiced since Roman times. It was well known to the architect, Christopher Wren, who cured blocks of Portland stone on the beaches of England before use.

The following is a partial list of observations of Physical damage during winter exposure or after cold exposure of stone to the elements of weather, usually cold;

1) Cracks, in sandstones, marbles, and granites, caused by stress relief and uneven loading of a building.

2) Scaling and Flaking, in all rock types, by hygric action, frost or salts.

3) Surface crumbling, in sandstones, some granites, and marbles. Detection of traces of efflorescent salts.

4) Porosity, changes due to weathering, transport of grain cement, effectiveness of consolidants or sealer.

5) Ultrasound testing for quality of stone; data of weathered stone should be compared with quarryfresh material, dry and water soaked; ultrasound tests may replace unsightly test drilling in many instances.

6) Moisture testing: approximate moisture content in masonry and stone can be tested with several types of instruments in the field. The method is limited; more precision is required to determine minor quantities absorbed from high relative humidity.

With the experience of most stone restorers, conservators, and preservationists; especially in these economic times, it is often more attractive to restore rather than replace. Our experience is that if the stone only had more care and maintenance or proper restoration, these great stones can be cared for properly and preserved. Since our company serves the New York Metro area, we especially see many old stone buildings with stone that is in advanced degenerative phases, inside and outside of the buildings. Working mechanically with these stones can often cure the problems, refine the finish, and preserve the stones.

All of the cities in this country has as its' lifeblood, its landmarks - its historic neighborhoods, its incomparable buildings, its distinctive streets. They hold the history of this nation built on democracy and capitalism. Histories so important to embrace, protect, and learn from. Like our Constitution, this is something to preserve. Like stone, a reminder of what was, what is, and what can be preserved and not destroyed. It is times like these that we restore. Given the chance, "yes, we can." The old does have an enduring significance. Until next time, "hold onto your stones" - build or maintain and restore, and do not destroy what is good.

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Sustainable Design, Stone, Tile, Restoration and Maintenance 
In the stone industry today, we are faced with the interest to respond to the fast-growing market for green buildings, design and construction services (restoration and maintenance of stone and tiles) and products. One competitive strategy for today’s market is for suppliers, installers, designers, architects, and others in the built environment professions to focus more attention on more value added services. Some of these services I am very familiar with and already so are many of you. They are the services for cleaning, maintaining, restoring, and preserving stone and tile surfaces. From building facades to limestone flooring.

One of the major drivers for Green Building Growth; MOVEMENT BACK TO THE CITIES. Just when I was thinking that I would not be spending so much time in the city, I have found that actual demand for services such as ours (for stone care) have increased in the cities. Use of the safe cleaners and sealers is important. In most cases, we use a safe abrasive means to clean most stone surfaces with water and without any chemical cleaners. A common misconception is that the stone restoration or professional stone cleaning company uses cleaners or magic stain release to get rid of inundated soil and stains on stone and tile surfaces. This is not true. In fact, most times, we can restore stone without the use of heavy chemicals. It is with skill and hard labor; that these materials are restored or cleaned. Stone care and stone restoration is requires trained professionals.

What available tools and techniques from conventional marketing can we use to greater effect in marketing green design services?

Sustainable design and sustainable care must be used because it adds value to investments in materials used. Sustainable care for stone and tile, a major material used in the built environment, has to do with methods and materials use also. The users of all indoor and outdoor man-made environments must know what materials to use for cleaning and restoration and how to use. A professional stone and tile care company will direct these needs and then the manager or owner of such materials can be educated as to how to care for themselves. If these surfaces are clean, so is the circulating air condition inside.

With floors one should be aware that with today’s design they are often in need of professional care. A common mistake is that after the installation is complete, the contractor, developer, or architect, and others involved with the final stage of the new installation; do not take the steps to have a post-installation clean, condition, and seal application services ordered. All too often, we hear,” the stone does not look right and it is difficult to care for." Some even think they made a mistake to install such a material and then blame themselves, the architect/designer, or supplier of the stone and tile. Often if they were told how to care for it in the beginning and ordered the appropriate after installation care by a professional who knows what to do, then they would not be in this position. And in turn, the building would be, yes; more sustainable.

So, keep your stones in the water from time to time. They love the rain! Without the acid. Until next time, keep the faith, hope, and health in abundance. If we work together, we can do better. If we do what is right, we will do better. We are all connected with nature. And nature prevails. For love of stone. This is Ed Hartz and the Stone Industry News wishing you blessed holiday times with your lives and your families. Thank you.

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A Diamond In The Rough: Irish Limestone 
Fortunately, Irish Limestone supply and demand is not like that with diamonds. And it is not controlled by DeBeers with virtual monopoly. It is not found often in residential or commercial flooring applications in the United States, at least not in the New York Metro Region from my experience. The reason is most probably due to the fact that the architects, designers, kitchen and bath people, fabricators, retail stone and tile shops (from Dal Tile and Walker Zanger to Paris Ceramics and other smaller shops), contractors, and homeowners; just do not know that much about this beautiful stone. Myself and others have had their eyes on this stone for a long time now.

Why? because this stone is naturally beautiful, will fit into modern or contemporary design today, feels great on the human skin (Ask the Barefoot Contessa), and maintains and restores very well.

Irish Limestone is a natural material of unique beauty, inherent durability and versatility. It is unlike softer limestone and has a similar density to quality granites. It can b used for flooring, countertops, fireplace mantles and surrounds, as well as in architectural applications in lintels, cladding, monuments, landscape paving stones and outdoor sculptures. Irish Limestone is extremely hard and durable, having been formed more than 325 million years ago as the floor of a coastal sea. The deep water transformed sediments into tough, fine-grained grey-blue limestone with calcite veins and crystalline fossils. The colors are identified as Irish Blue, Grey, and Fossil Limestone, since they range from black to blue to grey and often display well-defined fossils of sea shells, corals and prehistoric sea plants. The fossils and the inclusions of calcite introduce dramatic white or grey markings into the darker matrix of the stone.

HartzStone and some other stone restorations companies have tested this stone on samples and on the job sites. We found that this stone is not difficult to clean or restore. Unlike some of the more porous limestone, Irish Limestone is a dense form of dolomitic material that resists staining. Any etching caused by exposure to acidic liquids is superficial and may be cleaned easily or "buffed out." It is relatively easy to re-condition, restore, and maintain this stone. In fact, as the stone ages or cures, a patina develops to reduce the appearance of many etch spots normally encountered by using limestone.

You can choose to keep the weathered and patina look or have it cleaned and conditioned and sealed more regularly, thus giving it a different look. Testing with various sealers such as Dry Treat, AquaMix, Fila, Miracle, StoneTech, Bellenzoni, Tenax, and other major brand sealers have shown to varying degrees an effective treatment to slow the aging process without altering the stone's beautiful appearance. As Mom would say, stunning. Consumer Reports writes that limestone in general offers the best "stone look without heavy veining." Combined with its neutral color palette, warm honed finish and numerous fossil inclusions, this natural character has long been a popular choice for flooring and countertops in Europe. A fine stone care company in your area can understand and service this stone well for you. All you have to do is explain your situation/lifestyle and discuss the finish and maintenance level you desire. The stone is a joy to work with. So call your architect, your stone source, and your area stone care company. They can help you decide and take care of the stone.

For more information regarding this stone or supply and fabrication details, please contact the source at Irish Natural Stone, Inc., 21 Drydock Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts.

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Hard Rock Cafe Stone 
Porphyry is a type of volcanic rock, igneous rock, which along with granite and other rock formations make up approximately 95% of the worlds "crust." So if you are one of the "upper-crust" or want to live in this class like manner, then go on down to the nearest cafe and have a hot or cold mocha java outside. Notice beneath your feet the pavers outside. If you are fortunate enough, you will be standing on Porphyry, the Royal Stone. In 300 A.D., the ancient Romans used porphyry to install in palace rooms for members of the Royal Empire. This durable stone, the Romans also used to build their roads. The stone can still be seen today throughout Rome.

This porphyritic rock currently used by the building construction industry for floorings, traditional and ventilated-wall facings, is a type of effusive volcanic rock - rhyolitic and rhyodacitic ignimbrites - that is commonly found in the earth's mantle. Some of the thicker and more renowned formations of closely fractured ignimbrites are to be found in Italy, Argentina, and Mexico. Less thick, fractured formations are found in Australia, Japan, and Greece.
Non-fractured ignimbrites, i.e. without slab formation, also exist in Italy, Argentina, Germany, Peru, Poland, Turkey, Spain, Iran, China, and Mexico. Petrographically speaking, porphyry consists of a microcrystalline to vitreous groundmass, which makes up over 65% of its volume, containing up to 30-35% of small crystals (sizes 2-4 mm). The most abundant crystals consist of quartz, which explains why this rock is also known by the name of "quartz porphyry." Porphyry also contains a small percentage of feldspar and traces of mica minerals.

Porphyry's technical characteristics make it one of the most important materials for paving and facing in europe, America and around the world. Porphyry is stronger than granite with more than 31,000 psi. The increase in the concern for safety and durability has led to the adoption of protective surfaces, which are slip resistant, prevent slipping, impermeable, easy to repair, have minimal installation and maintenance cost, offer an economic solution because of its durability; and yes, porphyry resists staining on floors and walls from your coffee or drink at the Hard Rock Cafe or Starbucks coffee shop. You can live with and enjoy the stone for a long-long time. The services to maintain are minimum. Use a good stone neutral cleaner from Fila, Aquamix, StoneTech, Miracle Sealants or other major professional stone care company. And for stronger cleaning or maintenance jobs use a product from Proseco.

I love this stone and so will you. Call Porphyry USA or Milestone Imports for supply or other information related to this stone. Both are in the USA with supplies in New Jersey, Florida, California, and New Mexico.

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